Particle accelerators take basic particles, like protons or electrons, and speed them up to very high energies using electromagnetic fields. The implications of such technology has led to numerous advances in science and medicine.
Rather than trying to explain the entirety of how it works and probably confusing you, I thought it’d be best to leave it to this helpful infographic:
The key elements involved here:
- beam pipe
- electric fields
These are noted above in the diagram. The particles interact with the electromagnets by getting accelerated by them, then they crash into the targets where the detectors measure how much they do.